Since I was the technical support for the region, I had the responsibility to take care of the difficult technical issues which could not be solved by the field service engineers. I had taken initiative to perform the power and grounding audit for the southern region of India. I had been responsible to build the technical support team. i had reported on solid line to the regional service manager and dotted line to all India service manager. I had been assigned to handle and solve the frequent in mobile cardiac catheterization imaging system in one of our important end user site.
This system had multiple breakdown and image quality issues. I had to solve the issue and bring back the customer confidence level in our equipment quality and service delivery. I had taken it as a challenge and started the work at the site. This Free CDR Template is brought to your courtesy of gettingdownunder. com – Free Australian Immigration advice and resources for those looking to make the move down under. Personal Workplace Activity: Prior to start the service work , i had gone through the service log books and the error log files of the system to know the root cause of the multiple and frequent failure of the system.
The data analysis from the log book and the service files, I found some serious power quality and grounding issue on the site. I had decided to conduct the preliminary power and quality audit in the site. I inspected the power distribution panel and found the power cable size was under rated and unable to take the load. During the imaging system usage these power feeding cables started heating up and resulted in cable insulation meltdown. So I recommended to change the power feeding cables with the correct size to withstand the load.
I measured the ground impedance and found it extremely high. So I inspected the earth pit and found the bonding between the earth wire and the earth rod open. The electrical maintenance department of the hospital informed and corrective action had been taken immediately. Once the corrective action was taken, I measured the ground impedance again and found within the recommended level. I had booted up the imaging system and run the system diagnostic tests to isolate the problem. From the diagnostic test results, I suspected the problem in the High voltage and the control electronics.
The high voltage circuit consists of inverter circuit, HV voltage tank with the filament transformer, HV cables for the anode and the cathode, and the x-ray tube. The block diagram as follows Since there was no x-ray output from the tube, I started the troubleshooting from the snubber board which feed the primary side of the HV tank. The snubber board contains four Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors that switches the very large currents applied to the input of the large step – up transformer in the High voltage tank.
This pcb is designed with very low DC resistance and inductance to minimize the voltage drops at high currents. The resistorcapacitor-diode network on the board is used to damp the IGBT switch spikes. P. E. 2. 8 Due to the absence of x-ray generation, the system displayed low MA and low KV error message on the console monitor. This is due to absence of output from the secondary side of the HV tank. So I switched off the entire system and I checked the 400v, 70amps semiconductor fuse on the snubber board and found it defective.
This fuse might be blown due to the fault current generated from the x-ray tube spit. The x-ray tube spit is generated in the glass tube insert of the x-ray due to the formation of metallization on the glass walls. Then I checked This Free CDR Template is brought to your courtesy of gettingdownunder. com – Free Australian Immigration advice and resources for those looking to make the move down under. resistance between IGBT emitter terminal and the chassis ground with the true RMS multimeter and found short. This indicated the damage of wire insulation in the IGBT.
I found both the IGBT module faulty with the emitter to chassis ground short. So I replaced the IGBT module with the new one. After the replacement of IGBT module, I removed the anode and cathode HV cable on the tube side and inspected the HV cable connector and found lot of carbon deposits due to the tube spit. The carbon deposit on the HV cable pins hamper the effective conductivity, so I cleaned the connectors with Chemotronics Electro-wash solution. I checked the HV receptacle well on the xray tube and found it completely damaged.
The insulation between the filament supply and grid was completely lost. So I found it not repairable and the entire x ray tube assembly needed the replacement. I replaced the x-ray tube assembly with the new one. Before the power on, I decided to double check the HV tank which is the main part of HV Circuit. The HV tank develops the extremely high voltage necessary to operate the x-ray tube (up to 125kv). The tank includes resonant step up transformer, high voltage rectifiers, x-ray tube filament transformers, output ma and KV sensors and connectors.
I checked the rectifiers and the primary and secondary windings of the transformer for any defect and found everything ok. P. E. 2. 11 Then I decided to do the KV in Open Loop test in HV tank. So I removed the HV cables on the HV tank output and filled the HV tank output receptacle with mineral oil. Later I switched on the system and run the KV open loop test and it passed ok. Then I restored the HV cable connection between the tank and the x-ray tube in system off state. P. E. 2. 12 The x-ray tube and IGBT module replacement required the following calibration and adjustments for the normal and safe function of the system
IGBT Module Dead time wave form adjustments Filament Calibration KV and MA metering calibration Radiation dose calibration First I had to adjust the dead time between the KV drives signals on each of the IGBT pairs to proceed with the other calibration properly. The improper dead time adjustment might lead to damage of IGBT and the Generator driver board (which supplies the trigger pulse to the IGBT module). I connected the dual trace oscilloscope on the test points on the Generator driver board and observed the waveform of both the IGBT drive signal.
I found the drive signal between the base and emitter of the IGBTs out of tolerance during the peak load. So this might lead to cross-conduction in the IGBT module and the destruction of IGBT module. This Free CDR Template is brought to your courtesy of gettingdownunder. com – Free Australian Immigration advice and resources for those looking to make the move down under. The Generator driver PCB’s primary job is to convert the KVP drive signal from the High Voltage Supply regulator PCB to the levels necessary to drive the IGBTs on the SNUBBER PCB.
So I connected the oscilloscope in the high voltage regulator PCB test points and found the amplitude and frequency of the waveforms normal. So the root cause was isolated and identified with the Generator driver PCB. The problem was found on two of comparator’s output drives the gate transformers, which provide isolation from the high current circuitry and from high voltages present on each of the IGBT module. The defective comparator IC chips were removed and replaced with the new one. After the replacement of the comparator IC chips the drive signals were found normal.
I had proceeded with the IGBT dead time adjustment with the scope meter connected with the generator driver PCB and set it within the safer limit. I had checked the waveforms on the scope meter during the peak load condition and found ok. I performed the filament calibration at different KV and Ma station and updated the system filament drive database. This updated database might be used by the filament driver PCB to drive the filament transformer to output correct x-ray tube current according the radiation technique.
After the filament calibration, I adjusted the KV and MA metering adjustment to sense and display the correct KV and MA value of X-ray tube on the console during the time radiation exposure. Also I aligned the X-ray beam with the image intensifier in different Field of views. Subsequently I had run the collimator calibration for adjusting the collimator blades in different field of views. The camera Iris opening is adjusted to set the radiation dose at a safer limit recommended by the manufacturer. The image quality was tuned to optimum level. Summary
I had checked and tuned the imaging system for the optimum image quality. I run different exposure techniques with the Image Quality Signature Test Phantom and found the values within the specification. The customer was delighted with the performance and the This Free CDR Template is brought to your courtesy of gettingdownunder. com – Free Australian Immigration advice and resources for those looking to make the move down under. image quality of the system after the completion of the service work. It was a challenge for me to troubleshoot the system with multiple failures.
During the course of trouble shooting I analyzed the circuits and isolated the problem areas with the help of the knowledge acquired from my field experience and engineering course. I had learnt and applied different troubleshooting techniques to solve this issues. In nutshell I had considered this project as important milestone in my learning process and in my career advancement. This Free CDR Template is brought to your courtesy of gettingdownunder. com – Free Australian Immigration advice and resources for those looking to make the move down under.