Even though marketing usually only collect certain information like name, address, telephone and maybe an email addresses for different things that benefits their company statistics. Some business ask for your information to send out coupons, special promotion or deal breakers that could get you to purchase products from them again. Database systems which are typically in every business type and level use information to track specifics on what they need and use. Information is a valuable piece of data that can determine the outcome of something. Information flow in an organization can depend on how the organization is setup.
The information can either flow up and down or side by side. Up and down is flowing through the different levels or managers. Side by side is flowing of information through departments. Both of their flow ways are common in most organization because it could be tracked by who have it or who had it. When I was active duty military, information flowed from the highest level down to the lowest and from the lowest to the highest depending on who was sending it. It was kind of like sending messaging through carriers to get it to the destination, which made the process slower than it really should be.
In this case the information flowed through filters of people, the reason being is because they want you to try to get any situation solved at the lowest level if it is possible to do. The military have several database that stores information for different things for the purpose of tracking data. This different system record data that is inputted by different people depending on the level and skill type of the person. Sometimes we send information between specific departments depending on what the information contains. This way it doesn't get to department who doesn't benefit from it.
When you apply for any type of loans this information is processed and sent to different departments and levels of the company. Once this process is started the application is sent to several different approvals to get them to say the big word. The concerns with properly controlling this flow is different information would be exposed to people who shouldn't see it, in other words have the clearance for it or have to correct training for it. When you send information like this it is not classified it is unclassified therefore anyone can see it, keep it, or even give it to someone else without your authorization.
In this particular case if the information is classified enough where certain eyes can only see it, the information would be encrypted for those who have the access to view it. I know for medical information, the doctors or receptionist have you sign a HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) statement for confidentiality and protection from other who should not be seeing it. Only those who are either on the HIPAA form or who have the right to view it such as doctors, nurse and you the patient. Another concern with information is being digital which means it is send over the internet for Wi-Fi technology.
Many businesses either scan documents, fax them or email them which puts a big risk every time it is sent, because of cybercrime can occur. The military have several different filters and firewalls this information sent and received for this purpose of cyber-crimes. PlayStation network was hacked and all the information that was stored was compromised and some people might even have been a victim of identity theft, depending on how much information they kept of their file. How this happened was someone hacked their database and downloaded all the information was in it.