In 2011 every Macao labour has received at least 80 tourists. (D1) The problem is that tourist growth rate (up to15. 1% in 2010 and down to 12. 2%) has far exceeded the number of labour growth rate (1. 5% in 2010, to 3. % in 2011) of Macao, and the difference keeps becoming larger during the last three years. (D5)So Macao labor market is obviously unable to feed the tourism industry employment gradually expanding need.
Job vacancy issues description In 2008 to 2010 periods, the total percentage of vacancy jobs has been growing with the total amount of job offered in hospitality industry from 7% to 8% in the total 50,271 offered jobs in 2010. According to the research, the hospitality job vacancy problem mainly occurred on both management position (such as company leader and senior manager) and rank-and-file position.
In the same period, management position vacancies drop from 3% in 2008 and ended up with 1% in all vacancy jobs). Rank-and-file position vacancies' occupation grew from 88. 2% in 2008 to 88. 5 %( 4,099 vacancies) in 2010 among all the job vacancies. Particularly, waiter/waitress, unskilled workers vacancies takes over 95% in the rank-and-file vacancies during the three years. Reasons for job vacancy issue analysis There are two reasons cause the management position vacancy. First, limited quality of labor market.
Till 2011, there are 26% of the total Macao labors are holding a college or higher educational degree, this percentage would be 15. 8% if excluded imported workers apart. Moreover, the language skills would bring the percentage even lower, as the most regular used language is Cantonese (83. 30%), and followed by Mandarin(5%), and English (2. 30%) respectively in 2011. Second, the lack of international exposure, makes Macao labors less competitive in the market, because of small amount of travels and business activities outside to western ountries.
As for the rank-and-file job vacancy issue, mostly owes to: lower salary, lower status, and restricted labor importing policy. Low salary, especially for waiter/waitress, unskilled workers(around MOP6000), if compare with that(about MOP10,000) (D7)of rank-and-file positions in gaming industry which owns the similar job requirement; In Macau, there are common negative attitudes toward some rank-and-file jobs, because of social status concerns.
Jobs like waiter/waitress, cleaning and house keeping, is always in need. Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion, with the rapid development of tourism industry, issues like naturally lacking of human resource(267,200 local labours), limited qualified manpower and restricted labor importing policy, together will affect efficiency and effectiveness of the hospitality industry.
In order to solve the job vacancy issues, government on the one hand, acts as a profound role in guaranteeing the benefit and priorities for local labors, in the short term; On the other hand government has being taken step improving the education system during the years, by subsidizing application for studying professional subjects and tertiary education, in the long term.
Recommendations for a company, such as arranging more practical training on management concepts and skills to develop local talents for senior positions; Language training to cater to international customers and management is also an alternative; Bring in certificate recognition system could be a good way to measure competence or set standard for employment, promotion and reward. Finally, it's also the individual responsibility to making full use of the resources offered by public and private organization, get to ready for the global competition.
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